Elbow, Hand, & Wrist Conditions


Elbow, Hand, & Wrist Conditions

The elbow, wrist, and hand work in harmony to afford us the dexterity and strength necessary for daily tasks, from typing on a keyboard to lifting objects. Pain in these areas can significantly hinder our ability to perform basic functions, leading to frustration and a diminished quality of life. This discomfort can arise from a variety of sources, such as repetitive strain injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome, the impact of chronic conditions like arthritis, or acute trauma leading to sprains and fractures.

Causes of Elbow & Arm Pain

Biceps Tendonitis (at the Elbow)

Distal biceps tendonitis, a condition affecting the tendon that links the biceps muscle to the radius bone in the elbow, manifests through painful inflammation or irritation.

This ailment often results from intense or repetitive activities that exert considerable strain on the elbow, particularly actions that involve frequent bending of the elbow or twisting of the wrist.

Common among weightlifters, gymnasts, rock climbers, and laborers who engage in arm-intensive work, distal biceps tendonitis is also likely to occur with sudden spikes in activity levels, especially in the absence of proper training techniques.

Symptoms include pain at the front of the elbow that intensifies with elbow bending or when turning the palm upwards, coupled with possible forearm weakness, making it crucial for those affected to seek appropriate care and management strategies.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy, a condition characterized by the irritation or compression of nerve roots in the cervical spine, impacts the nerves that extend to the shoulders, arms, and hands, leading to symptoms in these areas.

Various issues with the bones and tissues of the cervical spinal column can trigger this condition.

A herniated disc, where the disc’s outer wall ruptures allowing its soft nucleus to bulge and press against a nerve root, is a frequent cause. Degenerative disc disease also contributes to cervical radiculopathy; this disease weakens spinal discs, causing vertebral bones to misalign and pinch nerve roots.

Additionally, spinal stenosis, stemming from degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the spine that leads to the formation of bony spurs and subsequent pressure on the spinal canal or nerve roots, can provoke similar symptoms. These conditions highlight the complex interplay between spinal health and overall nerve function, underscoring the importance of addressing cervical spine issues to alleviate discomfort and restore mobility.

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury

The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) complex, located on the elbow’s inner side, plays a crucial role in connecting the humerus (upper arm bone) to the ulna of the lower arm. Comprising three bands, the UCL is particularly susceptible to injuries among baseball pitchers and athletes involved in throwing sports, often as a result of the significant stress these activities exert on the ligament.

Such injuries are typically categorized as “overuse” injuries, where repetitive overhand throwing can lead to the ligament’s weakening, stretching, and irritation, potentially causing partial or complete tears, or even detachment from the bone.

Symptoms of a UCL injury include pain on the inner side of the elbow, a sense of weakness and instability in the elbow, reduced throwing speed, and, in the event of a tear, a possible popping sensation at the moment of injury accompanied by acute pain. Additionally, some individuals may experience tingling or numbness in the last two fingers of their hand, indicating the severity of the impact on the elbow’s structural integrity.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Treatment Nashville

Ulnar nerve entrapment, also known as cubital tunnel syndrome, is a condition affecting the ulnar nerve within the elbow. This nerve runs along the inner side of the elbow to the hand and is the same nerve that triggers the familiar “funny bone” sensation when bumped.

The condition arises when the ulnar nerve becomes compressed, stretched, or irritated, often due to the limited space within the cubital tunnel of the elbow, where the nerve has minimal soft tissue protection.

Factors contributing to this syndrome include frequent leaning on the elbow, sleeping with bent elbows, or anatomical irregularities of the elbow. In many instances, the exact cause of irritation remains unknown.

Symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome are marked by numbness and tingling in the ring and little fingers, often exacerbated when the elbow is bent for prolonged periods. This can lead to a sensation of “pins and needles” in these fingers and may result in hand weakness and clumsiness, impacting daily activities.

Tennis Elbow

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) Treatment Nashville

Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, involves the inflammation of tendons connecting forearm muscles to the elbow, with pain centered around the lateral epicondyle.

This condition affects the extensor muscles responsible for wrist and finger extension and their tendons attaching to the elbow’s outer side. It’s primarily induced by repetitive wrist and arm motions, with the tennis backstroke often cited as a typical cause due to the stress it places on the forearm, leading to microscopic tendon tears, inflammation, and pain.

Symptoms include pain and tenderness at the lateral epicondyle, potentially radiating down the forearm and weakening grip strength. Lateral epicondylitis is most common among individuals aged 30 to 50 and is prevalent in athletes engaging in racquet sports, though it can also affect people in professions requiring similar repetitive motions, such as plumbers, painters, carpenters, and butchers.

Golfer's Elbow

Golfer’s elbow, or medial epicondylitis, manifests as inflammation of the tendons that link the forearm muscles to the elbow, with pain predominantly located at the medial epicondyle, the inner elbow’s bony prominence.

This condition stems from the elbow joint’s intricate structure, comprising bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons, where it specifically affects the flexor muscles responsible for wrist and finger flexion and their tendons attached to the medial epicondyle.

Medial epicondylitis is primarily triggered by repetitive wrist and arm movements, with the motion of swinging a golf club often pinpointed as a significant stressor. This repetitive stress leads to the development of small tears in the flexor tendons, resulting in inflammation and discomfort. Symptoms include pain and tenderness around the medial epicondyle, which may extend along the forearm and wrist, accompanied by stiffness in the elbow and weakness in the hand and wrist. Additionally, sufferers may report numbness or tingling sensations in the ring and little fingers, highlighting the need for effective management and treatment strategies to alleviate pain and restore function.

Causes of Hand & Wrist Pain

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome treatment Nashville

Carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition that leads to pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand, occurs when the median nerve, an essential nerve to the hand, is compressed within the carpal tunnel, a narrow passageway in the wrist.

This syndrome can result from any factor that reduces space for the median nerve, including wrist injuries, conditions like diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, pregnancy, and any condition leading to fluid retention in the body. Interestingly, while repetitive motions such as extensive typing have been suggested as potential causes, the evidence remains inconclusive. Women are more likely to experience carpal tunnel syndrome, particularly those with inherently smaller carpal tunnels.

Symptoms typically involve numbness or tingling in the thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers, accompanied by a weakened grip, affecting one or both hands.

Radial Tunnel Syndrome

Radial Tunnel Syndrome Treatment Nashville

Radial tunnel syndrome involves compression, stretching, or irritation of the radial nerve as it traverses the tight spaces of the elbow’s radial tunnel towards the hand, affecting the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger.

Common causes include forceful arm activities, repetitive wrist movements, and specific elbow anatomical issues, with symptoms manifesting as pain, tenderness, and weakness along the forearm and possibly extending to the back of the hand.

This condition is exacerbated by arm usage, particularly during activities that require wrist and finger extension, highlighting the need for prompt recognition and management to alleviate symptoms and prevent further complications.

Wrist Sprain

Wrist Sprain Treatment Nashville

Wrist sprains occur when the ligaments—bands of tissue connecting the bones in your hand and forearm—are stretched or torn due to the wrist bending too far.

This common injury often arises from falls where an individual instinctively extends a hand to break the fall, causing the hand to bend backward excessively and damage the ligaments, particularly the scapholunate ligament.

Symptoms of a wrist sprain include pain, swelling, bruising, and a popping noise or sensation when moving the wrist, indicating the severity of the ligament damage.


Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear (TFCC Tear) Treatment Nashville

The Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) tear involves damage to the network of tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that provides stability to the wrist by connecting the forearm bones to the wrist bones.

A TFCC tear can occur suddenly due to falls or injuries, or gradually as a result of wear and tear on the tissues with age. Activities that repeatedly stress the TFCC, such as heavy lifting or racquet sports, increase the risk of developing a tear.

Symptoms of a TFCC tear include pain on the ulnar side of the wrist (near the pinkie finger), popping or clicking noises during wrist movement, difficulty rotating the wrist, and a weakened grip.

Flexor Tendon Injuries Nashville

Flexor Tendon Injuries

The flexor tendons in the hand play a crucial role in bending the fingers and thumb towards the palm, connecting directly to the forearm’s flexor muscles. Injuries to these tendons can impair hand function, making it difficult to flex the fingers or thumb, and affecting the ability to grasp objects.

Common causes of flexor tendon injuries include lacerations, ruptures, and inflammation, often resulting from household or workplace accidents, sports activities, or chronic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Lacerations can sever tendons and damage nearby nerves and blood vessels, while ruptures may occur in sports, leading to conditions such as Jersey finger.

Symptoms of flexor tendon injuries vary but typically include pain, reduced ability to bend the finger or thumb, and sometimes swelling and bruising. In cases of inflammation, pain, swelling, and restricted movement are common. Repairing these injuries involves surgical reattachment, and in the case of lacerations, rethreading the tendon through its pulleys.


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